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THE 10 GREATEST CANADIAN POLITICAL LEADERS

 The following people are considered by Pantheon to be among the top 10 greatest Canadian politicians of all time. This list of famous Canadian politicians is ranked by HPI (Historical Popularity Index), a metric that aggregates information on the online popularity of biographies. To see a complete list of Canadian politicians, visit the rankings page.

1. Justin Trudeau (1971 - )

With an HPI of 70.56, Justin Trudeau is Canada's most famous politician. His biography has been translated into 104 different languages on Wikipedia.

Justin Pierre James Trudeau (( listen) TROO-doh, troo-DOH, French: [ʒystɛ̃ pjɛʁ dʒɛms tʁydo]; born December 25, 1971) is a Canadian politician who is the 23rd and current Prime Minister of Canada. He has served as the Prime Minister of Canada since 2015 and as the leader of the Liberal Party since 2013. Trudeau is the second youngest prime minister in Canadian history behind Joe Clark; He is also the child or other relative of the previous holder of the position as the eldest son of Pierre Trudeau. Trudeau was born in Ottawa and attended the Collège Jean-de-Brébeuf. She earned a Bachelor of Arts in Literature from McGill University in 1994, then a Bachelor of Education degree from the University of British Columbia in 1998. After graduation, he taught at the secondary school level in Vancouver before moving back to Montreal in 2002 to further his studies. He was president of the youth charity Katimawik and director of the non-profit Canadian Avalanche Association. In 2006, he was appointed as chair of the Liberal Party's Task Force on Youth Renewal. At the 2008 federal election, he was elected to represent the riding of Papineau in the House of Commons. He was the Liberal Party's official opposition critic for youth and multiculturalism in 2009, and the following year he became the critic for citizenship and immigration. In 2011, he was appointed as a critic for secondary education and sport. Trudeau won the Liberal Party leadership in April 2013 and led his party into the 2015 federal election, moving the third-place Liberals from 36 seats to 184 seats, the largest numerical increase by a party in a Canadian federal election. . Major government initiatives he took during his first term as prime minister included legalizing recreational marijuana through the Cannabis Act; Attempting Senate appointment reform by establishing an independent advisory board for Senate appointments and establishing a federal carbon tax. In foreign policy, Trudeau's government negotiated trade deals such as the Canada–United States–Mexico Agreement (CUSMA) and the Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership, and signed the Paris Agreement on Climate Change. He was banned by Canada's Ethics Commissioner for violating conflict of interest rules in connection with the Aga Khan case, and later again for the SNC-Lavalin case. Trudeau led the Liberals to consecutive minority governments in the 2019 and 2021 federal elections, during which his government responded to the COVID-19 pandemic. During his second term he announced a ban on "assault-style" weapons in response to the 2020 Nova Scotia attacks. He was investigated for a third time by the Ethics Commissioner for his role in the WE charity scandal, but was cleared of wrongdoing. In 2022, he invoked the Emergency Situations Act in response to the Freedom Convoy protests, the first time the Act had been invoked since it was enacted in 1988.

2. Pierre Trudeau (1919 - 2000)

With an HPI of 63.74, Pierre Trudeau is the second most popular Canadian politician. His biography has been translated into 73 different languages.

Joseph Philippe Pierre Yves Elliot Trudeau (TROO-doh, troo-DOH, French: [pjɛʁ tʁydo]; October 18, 1919 – September 28, 2000), also referred to by his initials PET, was a Canadian lawyer and politician. He served as the 15th Prime Minister of Canada from 1968 to 1979 and from 1980 to 1984. He also briefly served as Leader of the Opposition from 1979 to 1980. He served as leader of the Liberal Party of Canada from 1968 to 1984. Trudeau was born and raised in Montreal, Quebec; He rose to prominence in Quebec politics as a lawyer, intellectual and activist. Although he aligned himself with the Social Democratic New Democratic Party, he felt he could not hold on to power, and joined the Liberal Party instead. He was elected to the House of Commons in 1965, quickly becoming Prime Minister Lester B. Appointed as Pearson's Parliamentary Secretary. In 1967, he was appointed as Minister of Justice and Attorney General. As minister, Trudeau embraced social liberalism; Two of his most notable achievements were the decriminalization of homosexual acts and the legalization of abortion. Trudeau's outgoing personality and charismatic nature created a media sensation, prompting "Trudomania", and helped him win the leadership of the Liberal Party in 1968, when he succeeded Pearson as Prime Minister of Canada. From the late 1960s to the mid-1980s, Trudeau's personality dominated the political scene to a degree never before seen in Canadian political life. Following his appointment as Prime Minister, he won the elections of 1968, 1972 and 1974, before narrowly losing in 1979. He quickly achieved a fourth electoral victory in 1980, and finally retired from politics shortly before the 1984 election. Trudeau is the most recent prime minister to have won four elections (three majority governments and one minority government) and to serve two non-consecutive terms. His tenure of 15 years and 164 days made him the third longest-serving Prime Minister of Canada after John A. MacDonald and William Lyon Mackenzie King. Despite his personal motto, "reason before passion", Trudeau's personality and policy decisions generated polarizing reactions across Canada during his time in office. While critics accused him of arrogance, economic mismanagement, and centralizing Canadian decision-making to the detriment of Quebec's culture and the prairie's economy, admirers praised him as a force for his wit and his political acumen. Who maintained national unity over the Quebec sovereignty movement. Trudeau controversially suppressed the 1970 Quebec terrorist crisis by invoking the War Measures Act, the third and last time in Canadian history that the Act was invoked. In addition, Quebec's proposal to negotiate a sovereignty-federal agreement with the federal government was overwhelmingly rejected in the 1980 Quebec referendum. To move the Liberal Party towards economic nationalism, Trudeau's government oversaw the creation of Petro-Canada and launched the National Energy Program; The latter sparked an uproar in oil-rich western Canada, leading many to coin the "Western Secession". In other domestic policy, Trudeau pioneered official bilingualism and multiculturalism, fostering a pan-Canadian identity. making Canada more independent in Trudeau's foreign policy; He dedicated the constitution and established the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, an action that secured full Canadian sovereignty. He forged close ties with the Soviet Union, China, and Cuban leader Fidel Castro, which put him at odds with other capitalist Western nations. In his retirement, Trudeau practiced law at the Montreal law firm of Heenan Blackie. He also campaigned against the later unsuccessful Meech Lakes and Charlottetown Compromises, arguing that an agreement recognizing Quebec as a "particular society" would weaken federalism and strengthen Quebec nationalism. Trudeau died in 2000. He is ranked highly among scholars in his ranking of Canadian prime ministers. His eldest son, Justin Trudeau, became the 23rd and current Prime Minister following the 2015 Canadian federal election; Justin Trudeau is the first Prime Minister of Canada who is a descendant of a former Prime Minister.

3. Marie-Louise Meilleur (1880 - 1998)

With an HPI of 57.22, Marie-Louise Meilleur is the third most famous Canadian politician. His biography has been translated into 18 different languages.

Marie-Louise Febronie Meilleur (née Chase; August 29, 1880 – April 16, 1998) was a Canadian supercentenarian. Meilleur is the oldest recognized Canadian ever and, upon the death of longevity world record holder Jean Calment, became the world's oldest recognized living person.

4. Lester B. Pearson (1897 - 1972)

With an HPI of 56.93, Lester B. Pearson is the fourth best known Canadian politician. His biography has been translated into 69 different languages.

Lester Bowles "Mike" Pearson (23 April 1897 – 27 December 1972) was a Canadian scholar, statesman, diplomat and politician who served as the 14th Prime Minister of Canada from 1963 to 1968. Born in Newtonbrook, Ontario (now part of Toronto), Pearson made a career in the State Department. He served as Canada's ambassador to the United States from 1944 to 1946 and as Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs from 1948 to 1957 under Liberal prime ministers William Lyon Mackenzie King and Louis St. Laurent. He narrowly avoided becoming the Secretary-General of the United Nations in 1953. However, he won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1957 for organizing the United Nations Emergency Force to resolve the Suez Canal Crisis, which brought him worldwide attention. Following the Liberals' defeat in the 1957 federal election, Pearson easily won the leadership of the Liberal Party in 1958. Pearson suffered two consecutive defeats in 1958 and 1962 by Progressive Conservative Prime Minister John Diefenbaker, only to successfully challenge him for a third time at the 1963 federal election. Pearson would win re-election in 1965. Pearson ran two back-to-back minority governments during his term, and the Liberals' lack of a majority in the House of Commons meant that they needed the support of opposition parties. With that support, Pearson introduced progressive policies such as universal health care, the Canada Student Loan Program, and the Canada Pension Plan. Pearson also initiated the Order of Canada and the Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism, and oversaw the creation of the Maple Leaf flag which was implemented in 1965. His government integrated the Canadian Armed Forces and kept Canada out of the Vietnam War. In 1967, Canada became the first country in the world to implement a points-based immigration system. After a decade and a half in power, Pearson resigned as Prime Minister and retired from politics. With his government programs and policies, his important work at the United Nations and in international diplomacy, including his role in ending the Suez Crisis, Pearson is generally regarded as one of the most influential Canadians of the 20th century. He has been ranked among the greatest of all. Prime Minister of Canada.

5. William Lyon Mackenzie King (1874 - 1950)

With an HPI of 56.56, William Lyon Mackenzie King is the 5th most famous politician in Canada. His biography has been translated into 45 different languages.

William Lyon Mackenzie King (December 17, 1874 – July 22, 1950) was a Canadian statesman and politician who served as the tenth Prime Minister of Canada for three consecutive terms from 1921 to 1926, 1926 to 1930 and 1935 to 1948. A Liberal, he was a prominent politician in Canada from the early 1920s to the late 1940s. King is best known for his leadership of Canada during the Great Depression and World War II. He played a major role in laying the foundations of Canada's welfare state and established Canada's international reputation as a moderate power fully committed to world order. With a total of 21 years and 154 days in office, he remains the longest-serving prime minister in Canadian history. Born in Berlin, Ontario (now Kitchener), King studied law and political economy in the 1890s and became concerned with social welfare issues. He later obtained a PhD – the only Canadian prime minister to do so. In 1900, he became deputy minister of the new Department of Labor for the Government of Canada. He entered the House of Commons in 1908 and in 1909 became Minister of Labor under Prime Minister Wilfrid Laurier. After losing his seat in the federal election of 1911, King briefly worked for the Rockefeller Foundation before working as an industrial consultant. After Laurier's death in 1919, King accepted the leadership of the Liberal Party and shortly afterwards won a by-election to re-enter the Commons. Taking command of a party during World War I due to the conscription crisis of 1917, he united both the pro-conscription and anti-conscription factions of the party, leading to victory in the 1921 federal election. King established a post-war agenda that reduced wartime taxes, marginally reduced tariffs, and developed the national capital, Ottawa. He strengthened Canada's autonomy by refusing to support Britain in the Chanak Crisis without Parliament's consent, and by negotiating the Halibut Treaty (which managed to deplete halibut stocks) with the United States without British intervention. In the 1925 election, the Conservatives won a plurality of seats, but the Liberals won support from the Agrarian Progressive Party and remained in office as a minority government. In 1926, facing a Commons vote that could force his government to resign, King asked Governor General Lord Byng to dissolve Parliament and call an election. Byng declined and instead invited the Conservatives to form a government, who briefly held office but lost a vote of no confidence. This sequence of events triggered a major constitutional crisis, the King-Bing affair. King and the Liberals won the resulting election decisively. Subsequently, King sought to make Canada's foreign policy more independent by expanding the State Department while recruiting more Canadian diplomats. His government also introduced need-based old age pensions and removed taxes on cables, telegrams, and railway and steamship tickets. King's slow response to the Great Depression resulted in a defeat in the 1930 election by the Conservatives. The Conservative government's response to the depression was highly unpopular, and thus, King returned to power in the 1935 election with a landslide victory. Soon after, the economy was on an upswing. King negotiated the 1935 Reciprocal Trade Agreement with the United States, passed the National Housing Act of 1938 to improve housing affordability, introduced unemployment insurance in 1940, and introduced family allowances in 1944 – Canada's first Universal welfare program. The government also established Trans-Canada Air Lines (the forerunner of Air Canada) and the National Film Board. A few days after World War II broke out, Canadian troops were deployed. The Liberals' landslide victory in the 1940 election allowed King to continue leading Canada through the war. He mobilized Canadian money, supplies and volunteers to support Britain while boosting the economy and keeping up morale on the home front. To satisfy French Canadians, King delayed the start of overseas conscription until late 1944. Even when the policy was introduced, he prevented a rebellion in Quebec with the aid of his cabinet ministers Ernest Lapointe and Louis St. Laurent. The Allied victory in 1945 allowed the king to call a post-war election, in which the Liberals lost their majority government. In his final years in office, King and his government partnered Canada with other Western nations to participate in the intense Cold War, introduced Canadian citizenship, and successfully negotiated Newfoundland's admission to Confederation. A modern technocrat, he wanted his Liberal Party to represent liberal corporatism to create social harmony. King retired from politics in late 1948, after leading his party for 29 years and leading the country for 21+1/2 years. He died of pneumonia. In the mid-1950s.King's personality was complex; Biographers agree on the personal characteristics that made him unique. He had Franklin D. He lacked the charisma of contemporaries such as Roosevelt, Winston Churchill or Charles de Gaulle. Cold and tactless in human relations, he lacked oratory skills and his personality did not resonate with voters. He had many political allies but very few close personal friends. He kept secret his belief in spiritualism and the use of mediums to keep in touch with late associates, and especially his mother, and allowed his intense spirituality to distort his understanding of Adolf Hitler in the late 1930s. Historian Jack Granatstein states, "Scholars express little praise for King the Man, but offer boundless praise for his political acumen and attention to Canadian unity." King has been ranked among the top three prime ministers of Canada.

6. Louis Riel (1844 - 1885)

With an HPI of 55.44, Louis Riel is the 6th most famous politician in Canada. His biography has been translated into 40 different languages.

Louis Riel (; French: [lwi ʁjɛl]; 22 October 1844 – 16 November 1885) was a Canadian statesman, founder of the province of Manitoba, and a political leader of the Métis people. He led two resistance movements against the Canadian government and its first prime minister, John A. MacDonald. Riel sought to protect the rights and identity of the Métis as the Northwest Territories gradually came under Canada's sphere of influence. The first resistance movement led by Riel was the Red River Resistance of 1869–1870. The provisional government established by Riel eventually negotiated the terms under which the new province of Manitoba entered Canadian Confederation. However, while carrying out the resistance, Riel had killed a Canadian nationalist, Thomas Scott. Riel soon fled to the United States to avoid prosecution. He was elected three times as a member of the House of Commons, but never took his seat in fear of his life. During these years of exile he came to believe that he was the leader and prophet chosen by God. They married in 1881 while in exile in the Montana Territory. In 1884 Riel was called upon by Métis leaders in Saskatchewan to help resolve long-standing grievances with the Canadian government, which led to an armed conflict with government forces: the North-West Rebellion of 1885. Defeated at the Battle of Batoche, Riel was imprisoned. in Regina where he was convicted on trial for high treason. Despite protests, popular appeals and calls for a jury for clemency, Riel was executed by hanging. Riel was seen as a heroic hunt by French Canadians; His execution had a lasting negative impact on Canada, polarizing the new nation along ethno-religious lines. The Métis were marginalized by the increasingly English-dominated majority in the Prairie provinces. One long-term effect was the bitter alienation felt by francophones across Canada, and anger against the repression by their countrymen. Riel's historical reputation has long been polarized between portrayals as a dangerous religious fanatic and rebel opposed to the Canadian nation, and, conversely, as a charismatic leader protecting his Métis people from undue encroachments by the federal government. Orangemen-dominated Ontario eager to give priority access to land to the settlers. Arguably, Riel has received more formal organizational and academic scrutiny than any other individual in Canadian history. The trial and conviction of Louis Riel has been the subject of historical commentary and criticism for over one hundred years.

7. Jean Chrétien (1934 - )

With an HPI of 55.08, Jean Chrétien is the 7th most famous politician in Canada. His biography has been translated into 56 different languages.

Joseph Jacques Jean Chrétien (French pronunciation: [ʒã kʁe.tsjẽ]; born January 11, 1934) is a Canadian lawyer and politician who served as the 20th Prime Minister of Canada from 1993 to 2003. Born and raised in Shawinigan Falls, Quebec, Chrétien holds a law degree from Université Laval. A Liberal, he was first elected to the House of Commons in 1963. He served in various cabinet positions under Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau, most prominently as Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, Chairman of the Treasury Board, Minister of Finance and Minister of State. of Justice. He ran unsuccessfully for the leadership of the Liberal Party in 1984, losing to John Turner. Chrétien served as Second Deputy Prime Minister of Canada in Turner's short-lived government, which would be defeated in the 1984 federal election. After a second defeat of the Liberals under Turner in the elections in 1988, Chrétien returned to politics after working briefly in the private sector, becoming Leader of the Liberals and Leader of the Opposition in 1990. In the 1993 federal election, Chrétien led the Liberals to a strong majority government, before leading the party to two additional majorities in 1997 and 2000. Chrétien was strongly opposed to the Quebec sovereignty movement. He won a narrow victory as leader of the federal camp in the 1995 Quebec referendum, and then spearheaded the Clarity Act to avoid ambiguity in future referendum questions. His government also established the long-gun registry, pushed through the Youth Criminal Justice Act, laid the groundwork for legalizing same-sex marriage, and closed a nearly 30-year-old budget deficit primarily through spending cuts. terminated. He implemented several major environmental laws, including an updated Canadian Environmental Protection Act, the Pest Control Products Act, and the Species at Risk Act. In foreign policy, Chrétien ordered the NATO bombing of Yugoslavia and Canada's military intervention during the war in Afghanistan but opposed involvement in the Iraq War. Although his popularity and that of the Liberal Party seemed undeniable for three consecutive federal elections, he became subject to various political controversies. He was accused of improper behavior in the Shawneegate and sponsorship scandals, though he has consistently denied any wrongdoing. He also became embroiled in a protracted leadership struggle within the Liberal Party against his finance minister and longtime political rival, Paul Martin. In December 2003, Chrétien resigned as Prime Minister and retired from politics, as a result of a review and pressure from the party's pro-Martin faction to lose leadership. Chrétien ranks high in the ranking of Canadian prime ministers. At age 88, Chrétien is the oldest living former prime minister of Canada.

8. Bonner Law (1858 - 1923)

With an HPI of 55.02, Bonner Law is the 8th hottest Canadian politician. His biography has been translated into 54 different languages.

Andrew Bonner Law (BONN-ər; 16 September 1858 – 30 October 1923) was a British Conservative politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from October 1922 to May 1923. The law originated in the British colony of New Brunswick (now A). Canadian province). He was of Scottish and Ulster Scots descent and moved to Scotland in the 1870s. He left school at sixteen to work in the iron industry, becoming a wealthy man by the age of thirty. He entered the House of Commons at the 1900 general election, relatively late in life for a front-rank politician; He was made junior minister, parliamentary secretary to the Board of Trade in 1902. Law joined the shadow cabinet in opposition after the 1906 general election. In 1911, he was appointed Privy Councillor, before standing for the vacant party leadership. Despite never serving in cabinet and being third in line behind Walter Long and Austen Chamberlain, Law became leader when the two front-runners withdrew rather than risk splitting the party. As leader of the Conservative Party and Leader of the Opposition, Law focused his attention on favoring tariff reform and against Irish Home Rule. His campaign helped turn Liberal efforts to pass a third Home Rule Bill into a three-year struggle that was ultimately halted by the start of World War I, with much argument over the status of the six counties in Ulster that would later became Northern Ireland, four of which were predominantly Protestant. Law first held cabinet office as Secretary of State for the Colonies in the coalition government of H.H. Asquith (May 1915 – December 1916). When Asquith fell from power, he declined to form a government, instead serving as Chancellor of the Exchequer in David Lloyd George's coalition government. He resigned in early 1921 on grounds of ill health. In October 1922, being unpopular with Lloyd George's coalition of Conservatives, he wrote a letter to the press giving only lukewarm support of the government's actions on Chanak. After Conservative MPs voted to end the coalition, he again became leader of the party and this time Prime Minister. Bonner Law won a clear majority in the 1922 general election, and his brief premiership saw negotiations with the United States over Britain's war debts. Seriously ill with throat cancer, Law resigned in May 1923 and died later that year. He was the fourth shortest-serving Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (211 days in office).

9. Wilfrid Laurier (1841 - 1919)

With an HPI of 54.83, Wilfrid Laurier is the 9th most famous Canadian politician. His biography has been translated into 40 different languages.

Sir Henry Charles Wilfrid Laurier, ( LORR-ee-ay ; French: [wilfʁid loʁje]; November 20, 1841 – February 17, 1919) was a Canadian lawyer, statesman, and politician who served as the seventh Prime Minister of Canada from 1896. had worked. Until 1911. The first French Canadian prime minister, his 15-year term is the longest unbroken term of office among Canadian prime ministers and his nearly 45 years of service in the House of Commons is a record for the House. Laurier is best known for his settlement between English and French Canada. Laurier studied law at McGill University and practiced as a lawyer before being elected to the Legislative Assembly of Quebec in 1871. He was then elected as a Member of Parliament (MP) in the 1874 federal election. As an MP, Laurier gained a large personal following among French Canadians and Québécois. He also came to be known as a great orator. After serving as Minister of Inland Revenue under Prime Minister Alexander Mackenzie from 1877 to 1878, Laurier became Leader of the Liberal Party in 1887, thus becoming Leader of the Official Opposition. He was defeated by Prime Minister John A. Macdonald's Conservatives in the 1891 federal election. However, the controversy surrounding the Conservative government's handling of the Manitoba schools question, triggered by the Manitoba government's elimination of funding for Catholic schools, cost Laurier a victory in the 1896 federal election. He subsequently led the Liberal Party to three more electoral victories. As prime minister, Laurier resolved the Manitoba school question by allowing Catholic students to have Catholic education on a school-by-school basis. Despite his controversial handling of the dispute and criticism from some French Canadians who believed the resolution was insufficient, he was nicknamed the "Great Conciliator" for offering a compromise between French and English Canada. The two issues, the United Kingdom seeking Canadian military support to fight in the Second Boer War, and the United Kingdom asking Canada to send funds for the British Navy, divided the country as English Canadians supported Britain's requests. did while the French Canadians did not. Laurier's government sought a middle ground between the two groups, deciding to send a volunteer force to fight in the Boer War and passing the 1910 Naval Service Act to create Canada's own navy. In addition, his government dramatically increased immigration, oversaw the admission of Alberta and Saskatchewan into confederation, built the Grand Trunk Pacific and National Transcontinental Railways, and established Canada as an autonomous country within the British Empire. Tried to do Laurier's proposed reciprocal agreement with the United States to reduce tariffs became a main issue in the federal election of 1911, in which the Liberals were defeated by the Conservatives, led by Robert Borden, who claimed that the treaty would destroy Canadian identity. Will lead to America to impress. Despite his defeat, Laurier remained as Liberal leader and once again became Leader of the Opposition. During World War I and the conscription crisis of 1917, Laurier faced a split within the Liberal Party as the pro-conscription Liberals joined Borden's Unionist government. Under Laurier's leadership, the anti-conscription faction of the Liberal Party became the Laurier Liberals, although this group was heavily defeated by Borden's Unionists in the 1917 federal election. Laurier remained Leader of the Opposition even after his 1917 defeat, but was not able to contest another election due to his death in 1919. Laurier has been ranked among the top three prime ministers of Canada. At 31 years and 8 months old, Laurier is the longest serving leader of a major Canadian political party. He is the fourth longest serving Prime Minister of Canada after Pierre Trudeau, MacDonald and William Lyon Mackenzie King.

10. Paul Martin (1938 - )

With an HPI of 54.76, Paul Martin is the 10th most famous Canadian politician. His biography has been translated into 60 different languages.

Paul Edgar Phillip Martin (born August 28, 1938), also known as Paul Martin Jr., is a Canadian lawyer and politician who served as the 21st Prime Minister of Canada and leader of the Liberal Party of Canada from 2003 to 2006. Worked as The son of former Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs Paul Martin Sr., Martin was an Ontario lawyer before becoming president and chief executive officer of Canada Steamship Lines in 1973. LaSalle-Emard's Montreal ride in 1988. Martin ran unsuccessfully for leader of the Liberal Party in 1990, losing to Jean Chrétien. Martin became Chrétien's longtime rival for the party leadership, although he was appointed Finance Minister following the Liberal victory in the 1993 federal election. Martin oversaw many changes to the Canadian government's financial structure, and his policies had a direct impact on eliminating the country's chronic fiscal deficit by reforming various programs, including social services. In 2002, Martin resigned as finance minister when tensions with Chrétien reached their peak. He initially prepared to challenge Chrétien's leadership, however Chrétien announced his intention to retire, triggering the November 2003 leadership election. Martin easily won the leadership and, in the following month, succeeded Chrétien as prime minister. In the 2004 federal election, the Liberal Party retained power, although only as a minority government due to the Chrétien government's sponsorship scandal. During his tenure, Martin's government signed the Kelowna Accords to improve living conditions for Indigenous peoples and legalize same-sex marriage. In 2005, as a result of new details from the sponsorship scandal released through the Gomery Report, opposition parties in the House of Commons passed a motion of no confidence that Martin's government was corrupt, triggering the 2006 federal election. The new unified Conservative Party led by Stephen Harper defeated Martin, ending 12 years of Liberal rule. Shortly afterwards, Martin stepped down as leader of the Liberals and declined to run for re-election in 2008. Assessments of Martin's prime ministership have been mixed, while his tenure as finance minister is viewed more favorably. Now seen as a global diplomat, Martin continues to contribute to the international arena through various initiatives, such as Incentives for Global Health, the non-profit behind the Health Impact Fund, where he serves as an advisory board member. functions as. He also sits as an advisor to the Ecofiscal Commission of Canada.

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